The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China: A Political History of the Tibetan Institution of Reincarnation

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By Peter Schwieger

A significant new paintings in glossy Tibetan heritage, this publication follows the evolution of Tibetan Buddhism's trülku (reincarnation) culture from the 17th to the 19th centuries, besides the Emperor of China's efforts to regulate its improvement. through illuminating the political features of the trülku establishment, Schwieger shapes a broader historical past of the connection among the Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China, in addition to a richer realizing of the Qing Dynasty as an internal Asian empire, the trendy destiny of the Mongols, and present Sino-Tibetan relatives.

Unlike different pre-twentieth-century Tibetan histories, this quantity rejects hagiographic texts in desire of diplomatic, felony, and social resources held within the inner most, monastic, and bureaucratic records of previous Tibet. This method attracts a different portrait of Tibet's rule through reincarnation whereas shading in peripheral tensions within the Himalayas, jap Tibet, and China. Its standpoint absolutely captures the level to which the emperors of China managed the establishment of the Dalai Lamas, creating a groundbreaking contribution to the previous and current historical past of East Asia.

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Fifty four Galdan used to be not tough the quit of either the Jebtsundamba and the Tüshiyetü Qan, yet basically of the Jebtsundamba to the Dalai Lama. within the regent’s directions, the Jebtsundamba was once defined because the maximum hazard to the Gelukpa. in spite of the fact that, the regent’s demand—made within the identify of the Dalai Lama—was thought of via the emperor as an illegitimate intrusion on his jurisdiction and an encroachment on his sovereign rights. additionally, the Qing Council of Ministers accused the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché of getting used the negotiation talks just to stall the Qing military in order that Galdan may well break out. therefore started the tarnishing of his recognition on the Qing courtroom, which lower than 365 days later used to be completely destroyed. The Qing Shilu comprises an access of a letter dated November five, 1691, from the emperor to the Dalai Lama during which reproach is heaped at the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché. The emperor accuses him, including different unnamed confidants of the Dalai Lama, of conspiring with Galdan with out the data of the Dalai Lama. fifty five After the emperor figured out in 1696 that the 5th Dalai Lama had lengthy been useless and that the Tibetan regent were performing in his identify, the emperor accused Sanggyé Gyatso of getting used the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché in his efforts to inspire and aid Galdan. fifty six In a letter issued on September three, 1696, the emperor demanded from the Tibetan regent the extradition of the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché. fifty seven On December sixteen, 1696, the regent used to be faced through the imperial emissary in Lhasa with the emperor’s fees and calls for. fifty eight Being stressed, he distanced himself from the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché and shifted all of the blame to him. Sanggyé Gyatso educated the emissary that as punishment he had already confiscated the possessions of the rinpoché’s family members and had exiled him to a remote position. it is going to take among and 3 months to get him to Lhasa to fulfill the emissary—too lengthy to attend. The regent promised, despite the fact that, that he may carefully convince him to return to Lhasa and may ship him to Beijing later on within the corporation of the lama who had followed the imperial emissary to Lhasa. The regent expressed the desire that the emperor wouldn't quite rake the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché over the coals. This wish used to be according to a prior assertion of the emperor that he could neither sentence the rinpoché to loss of life nor divest him of his rank as a lama. fifty nine those statements as transmitted by way of the Qing Shilu provide the impact that the regent at the one hand was once creating a scapegoat out of the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché yet nevertheless was once attempting to achieve time and keep him from imperial punishment, figuring out complete good that the rinpoché had really acted at the regent’s personal directions. The Tatsak jedrung rinpoché was once however extradited in July 1698, and the deliberative meeting in Beijing proposed that he be saved lower than safeguard within the capital. 60 not anything in regards to the fees introduced through the emperor opposed to the Tatsak jedrung rinpoché has been pointed out within the sketchy Tibetan debts of his existence.

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