Collection of Tao Yuanming (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:陶渊明集)

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By 陶渊明

  陶渊明(三六五——四二七),一名潜,字符亮,浔阳柴桑《今江西九江》人,曾作过州祭酒、镇军参军、建威参军和彭泽令,四十一岁由彭泽令上辞官归隐,直至去世。卒后友人私谧“靖节”,世称靖节先生。
  陶渊明少怀济世之志,但他生活的年代正是东晋与刘宋政权交替之际,政治昏暗、政局动荡、社会关争复杂、民族矛盾激化,他的理想舆现实发生了极大的冲突,他逐渐视仕途如棘途,向往平淡自然的生活。同时,魏晋以来玄学勃兴、玄言诗盛行,玄学的熏染又使他追求心灵的自适、人的完整。仕舆隐的矛盾困扰了陶渊明十九年,最终他选择了在盛年辞官归隐,再未出仕,表现出固穷守节、正直不阿、淳朴率真的高洁品格。隐居期间,他写有一些反映战乱给人民带来的痛苦与灾难的诗,但更多更好伪是歌咏归隐生活、描绘农村景色的诗篇,也有一些用意境化手法表现老庄思想、玄毕命题的诗,正因如此,陶渊明被称为“古今隐逸诗人之宗”(锺嵘《诗品》)。陶渊明的作品继承了汉、魏、正始之传统,并形成了独特的风格,内容充实,情感真挚,风格冲淡,韵致悠然,极善用写意的手法点染出浑朴深远的意境。

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